Research Paper

Jacklin Falconer
Dec/2009

More Than a Notebook of Scribbles: The Significance of a Written Source


When addressing this type of material Kenneth S. Goldstein, the editor of the series ‘Traditional Singers and Songs’ recognizes a dichotomy of audiences who may be interested in the study of this material, scholar/collectors and hobbyists, dividing them by what they desire out of a study.

“Imperfect grammar, syntax, pitch, tempo, rhythm, etc., do not disturb the scholar; they are a part of the total complex he studies. Those whose interest in folksong is popularly based require an aesthetically satisfying unit for singing and playing-at once perfect as to text and tune.” (Fowke, v)

First and foremost the source of our study, the 1928 Old Tyme Songs handwritten notebook by Frances Jackson (1911-1946) of Wingham, Ontario, Canada, must be distinguished as a partial source. It is unable to provide complete information about any of the pieces within as it does not include traditional music notation, chords or melodies. The document’s first person lyrical text would require additional notations, recordings or personal knowledge to perform any of the pieces and create a live musical happening or recreation. Perhaps that is the key term. The text is not sufficient to sponsor recreation of the material on it’s own. This being said, I implore readers to not pass by this source as unimportant or insignificant. It is not a songbook. It is not a chart or a highly sophisticated notation system but it did serve as notation and anthology to it’s creator and thus can provide details about her life and times as well as personal interests and the evolution of the songs themselves.

Studying the Source

The notebook came to my hands by way of family relation from John Angus Falconer who was the son in law of Frances Mary Jackson who’s name (Frances Jackson) is written on the front of the notebook. The same handwriting is reasonably believed to appear throughout the entire source. The book is thus attributed to her hand. Later within she autographs three entries with the initials F.M.M. Which not only further credits the text to her but also helps place the dating of the source. On June 12th 1929 Frances Mary Jackson married Alvin Lloyd Montgomery to become Frances Mary Montgomery and thus creating the new initials. At this time she moved from her home with her parents and sister on the 6th concession of Morris Township to her new home with Lloyd on the 10th concession of East Wawanash Township, never leaving South Western Ontario1.

Three months later, at the age of 18, she would give birth to her first and only child Vera Margaret Montgomery September 20, 1929. She lived the remainder of her short life on the farm she owned with Lloyd, passing away in January of 1946 at only 35 years old. It is reasonable to consider these songs as part of the entertainment and expression of her young life. The first entry is reasonably assumed to appear the year before her marriage and her first child. As her life must have changed greatly over such a short amount of time I am glad that she continued to write in the exercise book as long as she did.

The date of the text, I have stated as 1928 being it’s earliest date and approximately 1933 as it’s final entry’s date. The lyrics are written in a long form exercise blank book published by the Commercial Text Book Co., Toronto, Canada. containing 48 pages journal ruling and 48 pages ledger ruling as noted “for exercise in Canadian Modern Accounting, Pt. 1 and for all supplementary exercises in Bookkeeping.” Bookkeeping was something Frances was perhaps not as interested in as music, seeing as the notebook quickly changed from a scholarly exercise book to the place where she kept her favorite song lyrics. The inside cover of the source is titled “Songs” and lists 72 song titles, all of which appear within the rest of the source that actually consists of 94 songs. Many of them appear in the order described on this page. The differences can be seen, as I have notated within the first few entries on both the electronic and hard copy transcribed source. The first ruled page inside the notebook is where we find the first appearance of a date. The Trial balance for Henry Smith December, 31 1928 which is an assumed example in an exercise book rather than an actual person with factual data. This likely places the notation in 1929 but the possibility of it being written in 1928 is present so I have chosen to go with the first notated date as being the earliest date for this source. The following pages include such exercises for W. A. Sutherland, June 31, 1928 (a fictional date), James Hill Mar 31, 1928 and Samuel Henderson Dec 31, 1928 before she progressed to more detailed bookkeeping for Manning & Jackson Merchants detailing accounts from January and February 1928.

As mentioned before, the marriage in 1929 changed Miss Montgomery’s initials and saw her move from her Hullett Township farm with her parents to West Wawanash with Lloyd. The date Dec 3rd 1933 appears on the song “My Old Kentucky Home” the 88th entry with only 7 more lyrical entries to follow. Thus it is reasonable to assume that the final entry was completed close to this time, again with the possibility of occurring in 1934.

There is one more anecdotal entry at the end of the notebook, on the very last page which reads:

Dear Miss Ansley:-

We the members of the Jolly time Literary Society have gathered here to-night to bid farewell to you as a willing helper and member of our Literary Society

We have had many good times together And may our good wishes go with you to your new school. We ask you to accept this gift as a token of our remembrance and regard for you

Signed on behalf of the Jolly Time Literary Society
President L Montgomery

Treasurer W. Walker

Again this information may seem inconsequential of the musically relevant information within this text but I believe it shows an invested interest in literature and makes note of a social structure of the time. It lends some understanding towards what compelled this person to keep a notebook like this over a number of years. She enjoyed something explicitly about the lyrics of these particular songs. It is reasonable to say that Frances knew more than 94 songs in her lifetime which leads us into examine the songs and ballads which are included in this text.

Chosen with Care

94 separate, titled sets of lyrics are meticulously hand written inside this source and if the time it took to type them out is any indication of the dedication that was put into this book, it was something that was cherished. The fact that it was not only kept safe but passed down for 80 years through three generations is indicative of the aesthetic or emotional value of the contents as well. It could have easily been tossed out during a move or discarded and used as kindling for a wood stove. The handwriting is quite legible as shown by accompanying photographs. It was a rare occasion that I came across a word that was hard to read, though it did occur. These questionable transcriptions are noted with square brackets [] indicating that I have provided the closest logical word but it is possible that the word is actually something else.

Questions of Style

This transcription project has the unique status of being a secondary source of a secondary source. The primary source of this information, I feel it is fair to assume was created by personal knowledge gathered by oral tradition, by rote. As far as passed down information remains Frances Jackson was a drummer in the family 4 piece band (which consisted of her parents Albert on fiddle, Margaret on banjo, her sister Edna on the piano and occasionally her brother Henry on Trumpet – all of whom outlived Frances) who possibly had some knowledge of music notation while the tradition of the area’s music was quite often spread by rote. The family also played in the Clover Hullers Orchestra2, though it should be noted the regions concept of orchestra is quite different from what traditionally comes to mind. In addition to these factors, I believe this collection is a cumulation of oral tradition based on the content and it’s organization. The songs are rather varied and do not fit into a category that a publisher might look for when publishing a compilation of songs. This is to say that I do not believe this is a written out reproduction of another source. It has the unique and interesting status of being a written source based on an oral source, a sort of unintentional auto-ethnogoraphy

As mentioned previously this source is a partial source so the first step was to look for these songs in notated form in other publications. A basic scanning of sources locally available revealed that no more than four songs ever appeared in the same compilation of songs published in the same period or even in those published after. Books complied by location, style, form, topic and even by popularity were all searched and revealed that while some yielded more than others, like a compilation of cowboy songs, none were conclusive enough to implicate that all 94 of these pieces would be found in one place.

One term that should not be ignored is that which was given to the lyrics inside by the owner and scribe of the collection. “Old Tyme Songs” was written clearly on top of the front cover. Historians and performers of the style alike identify the term as a marketing term.

“This one can be traced to 1923, when Georgia’s Fiddlin’ John Carson waxed The Little Old Log Cabin in the Lane and The Old Hen Cackled and the Rooster’s Going to Crow for the OKeh label. … The company which had three years prior pioneered ‘race’ recording with Mamie Smith’s “Crazy Blues” opted for ‘old time music’ as a descriptive moniker for records by artists of Carson’s ilk, and OKeh’s label has prevailed.”(Humphrey)

The connection to these tunes is solidified by “The Little Old Log Cabin” being within the first twenty entries in the exercise book (number 16). The date indicated by the Carson recording allows a reasonable five years for the marketing term to become established and migrate up to rural Ontario to be used to categorize such a collection of songs like this.

While great musical and lyrical influence of this time is so often quickly credited to Stephen Foster, I could only find one of his songs within the collection, of course uncredited and slightly miss titled “My Old Kentucky Home” which Foster wrote in 18533. The Grove Dictionary of Music credits musical composers Harrigan and Hart as well as George M. Cohan with changing the lyrical lexicon from Foster’s formal and flowery imagery to a less poetic more conversational one. Few if any of the songs contained originated in musicals, probably due to the location of the community but it is possible to see song writers like Cohan’s influence. “Cohan was an untrained musician, who professed only to write songs in the standard format of introduction, two verses and chorus, with simple harmonies and undemanding vocal range.” (Byrnside) The family members of the Jackson family band were in most cases not classically or traditionally trained themselves. The vocabulary and tone of the songs are quite conversational and frequently include slang or phonetically written accents. And much like Cohan’s preferred form sixteen of the 94 songs follow the two verses and chorus form.

Despite being able to credit the style or language use to specific performers or songwriters folksongs have a sense of mutual ownership and I believe it’s that comfort with making the songs her own that brought Frances to put such time and dedication into creating this collection. None of the works in the document are accredited to their composer, lyricists or even to a performer. The lyrics no doubt appear in the form that she best knew them from learning them from others. Of course the works have authors and some like “My Old Kentucky Home, Goodnight” are credited to very famous composers but that knowledge was either unknown to the people passing on the songs and lyrics or merely not considered as a usefully significant fact for notation.

The question must then be posed; are the collection of words in fact a collection of songs? Or are they a collection of verses? Perhaps even spoken word art. There are only a handful of entries that are questionable on their status as lyrics or songs due to their length or a lack of rhythmic spoken meter4 the majority lend themselves to song by one thing: form.

Format and Form

There are a few clear indicators of form in the original document that I have been careful to express in the electronic and subsequently printed documents. The first of these is format. Frances was quite clear in giving each phrase it’s own line in the ruled book. Then each group of phrases were given their own paragraph. Additionally when a refrain was present in a piece she would continue the previously mentioned formatting but after an indent which is a traditionally recognized notation for a chorus. Unfortunately this leaves us guessing as to how this chorus is to be applied. Is it to be assumed that the chorus would be sung between each verse and possibly again at the end of the piece or is it to be applied only the once? The traditionally repetitive nature of the chorus implies the former but there is no way to be sure.

Some of the entries identify themselves as song because they are still recognizable today by title alone such as no. 90 A Home On The Range or no. 5 Red River Valley.5

The most common form in the collection was the ballad which made up for 42.5% of the pieces and the most common of these was the six verse ballad at 35% of the ballads. The ballad form lends itself well to the types of stories that are often being told in this collection. The major indicator of an entry being a ballad was the absence of a stand alone chorus, indented as mentioned before which would perhaps imply a different melody, tone or accompaniment might be used on that section. The ballads ranged from three verses to eleven verses. 11.7% of the pieces followed an ABA form while as previously mentioned 17% of the songs featured the favored ABAA form.

The source is almost predictable in it’s four line verses and rhyming couplets but there is great variation in the lengths of such lines. While it is probable to assume each line is a four bar phrase, some verses feature a longer line such as 10 syllables then the second line will be shorter with only 9 syllables. For example this verse of number 46 “When Its Lamp Lighting Time In The Valley”

In the lamp light each night I can see her (10)
As she rocks in her chair to and fro (9)
Tho she prays that I’ll come back to see her (10)
But I no that I never can go (9)

But even this type of analysis must be taken with caution as we may no longer verbalize some words in the same way that they were spoken at the time. Words like “heaven” are often slurred into one syllable for example.

It was not uncommon for ABAA songs to have verses that were doubled to eight lines per A section but retained the four line structure for the B section, all the while keeping the same syllabic and rhythmic value per couplet phrase such as in entry 21 “Lay My Head Beneath A Rose”

Darling press me to your bosom (8)
As you did in days of yore (7)
Press your lips upon my forehead (8)
Ere I reach that golden shore (7)
Life is from me quickly fading
Soon I’ll be in sweet repose
When Im gone I ask this favor
Lay my head beneath a rose

Lay me where sweet flowers blossom (8)
Where the dainty lilies grows (7)
Where the pink and violet mingle (8)
Lay my head beneath the rose (7)

Some ballads took this idea one step further by having sixteen lines per verse while others like “Chicago Exhibition” lend themselves to a longer stream of consciousness format. This style was followed by Frances as the “Chicago Exhibition” entry (number 3) contains no breaks to indicate verse or chorus.

Proof and Merit

The greatest obstacle faced in proving this document’s musicological merit stands in the fact that no traditional music notation is included. The melodies, tunes, accompaniment and settings are not indicated in any way but this does not keep the pages of this document from being recognized as representational notation to the original owner or anyone else in on the socially accepted code of the time. No, literate English cannot be considered some secret code kept only to this individual, group or ensemble exclusively but the lyrics found within can be.
The question comes down to intent. Why do we require traditional five line staff notation or lead sheet style chord notation to validate these texts as musical? Do we intend to recreate the sounds, to create a live event of the music to establish it firmly in our beliefs as an artifact? Does modern recreation make for a more concrete proof of it’s worth? I do not believe so. On a basic, quick overview to ‘check’ the status of these songs there is a good chance that even with an excepted standard notation an ethnomusicologist would pick up a guitar or sit at a piano to test or try these songs. Such a trial would not sufficiently produce the sound the document’s owner would have heard or imagined in relation to the notation she kept, not without some prior knowledge of the music, time or instrumentation used. “To seek to establish a guitar ‘tradition’ for English folksong is merely to Americanize and so to falsify, for there is not the slightest grounds for doing so.” (Poston) As mentioned before the owner’s ensemble was a four or sometimes five piece band consisting of piano, banjo, violin, occasionally trumpet and drums.

As with what seems to be all American traditions, there is a heightened sense of need for authenticity or validation within the music of itself. Perhaps this comes from being British colonies hell bent on proving their independence and uniqueness from their patriarchs like moody teenagers. The folksong is not excepted from this rule as it tries to be nothing more than what it was, as close to it’s original source as it can despite it’s natural affinity for mutation though changes in the lyric and tune by word of mouth and settings and accompaniment. “If it be arguable that folksong is no longer itself when subjected to accompaniment at all, we must allow that it must be condemned to sterility and must perish if it be not admitted into the bloodstream of successive generations.” (Poston)

By no means am I implying that these works were never host to melody or accompaniment but rather that no other feature of the folksong can be as detailed in notation as that of the lyric. A set of guitar tabs or even traditionally notated melody is less likely to be a ‘photograph’ of the way they were performed on a regular basis or the standard to which they were expected to be performed. Vernacular nuances are written into the text of many of the songs, taking on dialects and even slang of different regions or perhaps just those of the location where they were played.

Statistical Song Study

“The scholar may complain that the selection of songs by such means is unscientific, representing the ethnocentric tastes of the collector, music editor, and series editor. Such critics are technically correct but, until we learn more about folk aesthetics, there is no other aesthetic we can apply, And, too, every collection that has been published, representing only a portion of field worker’s total materials, has been subjected to some ethnocentric aesthetic treatment in the selection of the songs and ballads to be included in the published work. Until such time as unlimited funds are made available to scholars to publish their total collectanea, the practice of one or another kind of selection for publication will continue.” (Goldstein)

Granted in no way was Frances Jackson’s accounting exercise notebook ever intended to be a published work nor was it directly influenced by a monetary reward of some kind that such a venture might provide for the editors of a scholarly collection, but these limitations still apply. It should be noted that this is a collection, an anthology even of the music that affected the writers life in some way be it with joy or empathy.

When studying a collection of songs joined by relation to one individual we must consider them as a repertoire or recital of sorts. While surely not exhaustive, these songs represent a selection of songs that were relevant, memorable, popular or appealing to the individual for some reason. “..from the point of view of it’s social function, the primary effect of music is to give the listener a feeling of security, for it symbolizes the place where he was born, his earliest childhood satisfactions, his religious experience, his pleasure in community doings, his courtship and his work -any or all of these personality-shaping experiences.” (Lomax) When we take a look at the categories and tags applied to the content on the online version of the transcription they show a clear relation with these kinds of emotional/lyrical connections. It must be noted that these are in many cases objective but based on clear evidence such as the direct use of the word “birds” would find an entry categorized under animals and as well under the tag birds, as would the word “dove”. Though the word “dove” depending on it’s context may also find an entry categorized under God/Religion.6 A full text list of Categories, Tags and their statistics can be found on the sidebar of the electronic publication or in appendix 1.

Longing, for instance, comes up as the most frequent theme in the lyrics appearing in 58.5%. I divided this theme into two sections, those lyrics which told of a longing for place and those that longed for a person. It was common at this time and in this area for young men to head west to work the later wheat harvest once the fall hit in Ontario and there was less work to be done on their own farms. “…motivation for going to the West was the excursions were not only profitable, but they broke the monotony of everyday life. They offered him an avenue for journey and adventure.” (Schwartz) Many of these adventures turned into songs. This goes hand in hand with another of the most frequently appearing themes – Fidelity. It is clear that fidelity was something that concerned either Frances herself or the people from which she heard new songs. “Twenty-One Years” is an interesting piece in the collection as it is the only song to appear in three versions. The first two are versions of the same piece appearing at number 8 and 51. Both tell the same story of a man who is going to jail for 21 years for a crime that is implied to have been committed by his sweetheart who once he is in jail forgets about him does not write him like she promised. The third appearance of this title is “Answer to Twenty-One Years” and is from the woman’s point of view explaining that she has been so heartbroken that she’s been too sick to write but is still true.

They tell me you’re bitter cause I didnt write
But my brain is all fevered and dark is the night
So you’ll understand why I didn’t write you
The Master in Heaven knew what Ive been through”

Maybe the men and women of the time were insanely jealous or perhaps there was a heightened importance put on honesty. Or perhaps the answer is more practical than that. It came down to sheer numbers.

“In fact, a picture of rural Ontario’s young women taking off for town, leaving the men behind ton the farm, is outlined in some detail by the 1931 census. In the province as a whole in 1931, there were 104 males to every 100 females. After several decades of large-scale selective migration from country to city, the ratio for the rural areas had become 117 to 100. and the imbalance was even more pronounced among young people, … 136:100 among those aged 20-24,” (Brookes, 283)

Perhaps this explains the 36% occourance of lyrics about courting or maybe that can be left to hormones, a little romanticism and good storytelling.

Not surprisingly the second most common theme was love which was topic in 51% of the entries in the collection. This, much like longing ranged from imprisoned men professing their love for their sweetheart’s on the outside to cowboys singing their love of their wild and free lifestyle.

One thing is for sure, these songs do not collectively represent an especially happy time for the people of the area. While working with this document I had the task of carefully going through each piece in order which I feel, gave the opportunity to see this collection as a purposeful group. While there are no doubt humorous and happy pieces in the collection there were long periods of sad and depressing entries. The most shocking and saddest to me were songs like number 26 “In the Baggage Coach Ahead” and number 29 “Poor Little Joe” Which both dealt with death, a theme which appears in 43.6% of the entries. “In the Baggage Coach Ahead” tells the story of a father on a train who is caring for a crying baby who wants it’s mother. When the passengers tell him to simply go get her, he tells them the sad story of his wife’s death and that her body is in the baggage coach ahead all the while sobbing. “Poor Little Joe” on the other hand is about the death of a homeless child. I was struck quite bluntly by the tracgic and sad lyric,

While strolling one night though New Yorks gay throng
I met a poor boy who was singing a song
And although he was smiling he wanted for bread
And although he was smiling he wished himself dead
I spoke to this poor boy out in the snow
He had no place to shelter him nowhere to go
No Mother to guide him in the grave she is low
Lost on the cold street was poor little Joe”

This was a time when life expectancy was shorter, death during childbirth was much more common and child poverty (if not economic distress in general) was a very real issue. The story of poor little Joe specifically speaks of New York but this was a time when thousands of orphan children were being brought to Canada by organizations like that of the Barnardo homes (Kohli) to not much better conditions. Poverty was theme in 12.7% of the lyrics appearing more frequently than nationalism, war or farming. Pain also appeared as a common topic with almost 29% of the songs utilizing this theme, both in the physical sense as in the slapstick comedy of (number 3) “Chicago Exhibition” and in the emotional as in (44) “The Butcher’s Boy” where a girl ends her life after being ignored by her true love.

The presence of such dark themes can be both supported and contrasted by the instances in which celebrations appeared. Only slightly over 6% of the songs spoke of such an event that is in nature associated with joy and a freedom from troubles or burden. The fanciful dreams of “The Big Rock Candy Mountain” (83) celebrate hope and wishful thinking of an easier time speaking of plentiful food, good weather and less work.

In the big rock candy mountain there’s a land thats fair and bright
Where the hand-outs grow on bushes and you sleep out every night
Where the box cars are all empty and there’s sunshine every day
And the birds, and the bees and the cigarette trees, and the lemonade springs and the bluebird sings
In the big rock candy mountain”

For a time and area that is to this day considered to be fairly conservative, less than a third of the songs mentioned God and or Religious symbols. From my knowledge the Jacksons were not an especially religious family but perhaps this speaks to the separation of the uses of music in this society. Hymns were no doubt in abundance at this time and probably as well known but were purposely kept separate from these ‘Old Tyme Songs’ and not included in Frances’ collection.

Some of the most entertaining and humorous entries were about law breaking and or people going to jail. Many of these mentioned Nashville as the place where criminals go. This was not an isolated occourance. American places are mentioned more times than Canadian places. This could have to do with where the songs themselves originated from but could also be influenced by Huron County’s proximity to the United States. “Today, the fatherlands from which the people of Ontario derive have become almost without number, but in the 19th century and up till the Second World War, they were basically four: far off England, Scotland, and Ireland, and, right on our doorstep, the United States.” (MacGillivray, 11)

Additionally “During the 20th century Huron Country remained primarily rural and was closely linked to roads and railways.” (Schwartz) which made it both accessible and allowed the men and women to travel. Then it is not surprising that over 13% of the entries spoke of trains, a specific train, or the railroad, many were grandeur stories about train crashes or close calls.

I believe it is also of interest to note that 60 of the entries contained lyrics that indicated they were from a man’s point of view (this is often assuming a heterosexual orientation of the subject based on the object of affection) while only 10 of the entries contained lyrics indicating that they were from the point of view of a woman. This is exceptionally interesting as the collection’s owner was not only female herself but a member of a band that consisted of more women than men, both men playing a instruments (violin and trumpet) that would prevent them from singing and playing at the same time. This speaks to the fact that the lyrics story was more important than the gender or the relation of the lyric’s gender to that of the performer.

So what does this tell us about the time, the place or the individual? Reflecting on the statistics I believe it’s fair to say that it portrays a compassionate and hopeful people. Strong representation of themes like longing and death are paired with the popularity of love and courting. This time for Frances held major changes and challenges in her life, leaving home, marriage, pregnancy and raising a child all on top of farming during the depression. All of these things may have influenced the songs or lyrics that she might favor but it also shows a greater reflection of Ontarians themselves. “..the Ontario mind shuns extremes, automatically seeks truth in the middle – where it is not necessarily to be found – and assumes that the other fellow also has a point of view that seems sound to him. The Ontario Mind tends to negotiation and compromise, rather than to confrontation.”(MacGillivray, 88) Never too hot or too cold, or perhaps always too hot or too cold there is a middle ground found in both the mentality of Ontarians and in this collection.

Lest We Forget

Lastly, the electronic documentation of this source can be seen as a way of preserving something for pleasure. So often caught up in academia we forget the value of items and information for purely nostalgic and entertainment reasons. The stories told through these lyrics tell nostalgic stories that are sometimes funny and sometimes quite sad. They tell stories of a time that is sometimes hard to believe or imagine as true. Is it possible that songs exaggerate the situations? It’s quite probable that they do but that plays to old fashioned type of storytelling that is often lost in the popular lyrics we hear today. I have called this a labor of love that I’ve held quite personally close. It is not often that one gets to share their academic work with their non studying friends and family with such a spark of interest in response. There is a general interest in these songs as shown by the visitor hits on the blog version of this project, which has received between 70 and 287 views per week since it’s publication.

“Folksongs are not simple things, and in discussing them it is important to remember that they are not only texts or “poems” as Bishop Percy and the circle of Samuel Johnson regarded them in the eighteenth century. A folksong is a blend of text, tune, style of presentation, and function.” (Stekert) This document exists without it’s own indication of tune, style of presentation or blatantly stated function but as we’ve noted there is in fact information that can be pulled form it even in a brief and primitive analysis and statistical categorization. Perhaps then, what it comes down to is that the document is no longer a complete and representational artifact, though it used to be. The people who could look at this particular source and bring to mind all the knowledge they needed to recreate the music over and over again are no longer around and as scholars perhaps we’re inclined to look at it in the wrong way. A document such as this is then as valuable as something written in a dead language we are only half able to translate. It may not teach us how to order lunch at the ancient deli but it can show us important and useful things about the topic and the people who left it there.

Endnotes

1Photos of the farms in appendix 2

2Photos in appendix 2 – also on online source under photos tab

3http://www.pdmusic.org/foster.html

4These songs are Chicago Exhibition # 3 and Blame it On To Poor Old Father # 86

5 All numbers sourced within this text refer to the number system applied to the order in which they appear in the source and the numbered index. If consulting the online source, use the search feature on the right column to search by title or keyword.

6 A full text list of Categories, Tags and their statistics can be found on the sidebar of the electronic publication or in appendix 1.

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